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First chronic gastritis symptoms treatment cheap metoclopramide 10mg overnight delivery, the studio may request to gastritis symptoms upper right quadrant pain buy metoclopramide 10mg mastercard see the reasons the film received its rating and then re-edit the film to gastritis diet vegetarian cheap 10 mg metoclopramide with visa achieve a different rating. After screening the film and hearing from both the studio and the chair of the rating board, the appeals board votes. This indicates that the film may contain some profanity, violence, or nudity, but not at levels that the Ratings Board feels should merit a strong caution. This rating was created in 1984 to indicate more severe levels of violent content, profanity, or nudity, which parents might not feel appropriate for young children. The R rating (Restricted, Under 17 Requires Accompanying Parent or Adult Guardian) indicates the film contains adult material (including hard profanity, rough violence, sexual-oriented nudity, or drug abuse). Theaters are intended to enforce the adult-accompaniment restriction for R-rated films. Although it may not legally be termed obscene or pornographic, such a film would have strong sexual, violent, or aberrant behavior. The ratings symbol displayed in movie advertisements includes wording indicating the type of objectionable content present. These content descriptors are intended to give parents more information 550-Movies, Romantic Love in in advance of seeing the movie; however, some have criticized them for not providing enough information about the offending content. A second criticism of movie ratings comes from research with parents conducted by the National Institute on Media and the Family. Hence, a significant portion of teens and children report viewing R-rated movies in theaters, as well as on premium cable television networks. It applies to such notions as a brief love affair, an intense and enduring bond based on mutual feelings of love, a sudden flare-up of romantic passion, and a strong amorous fascination of one person for another. Many of these and other dimensions of romantic love have occurred as a dominant or central idea of legends and tales in most cultures. Telling and retelling stories on the subject of romance is regarded as part of the socialization process of family values and sex roles. Through romantic tales, diverse moral propositions on love and relationships are propagated. The perils of romantic relationships that do not comply with customary norms or may disrupt established social ties, for instance, are illustrated by stories in which the lovers are left damaged or disappointed. In their storytelling practices, 20th-century media industries have always been keen to take up the theme of romantic love. A number of analyses into the status of romantic portrayals in mass media cultures have described the romantic theme as dominant and ubiquitous. Bachen and Illouz speak of an obsession in our culture for stories about romantic love and call film and advertising the privileged discourse of sexual and romantic desire. Romantic portrayals in movies are described as a textbook example of how the figural dominates in a postmodern culture. Bachen and Illouz point out that compared to the verbal narratives of the past, the present-day visually vivid and lifelike imagery of romance is more likely to evoke mechanisms of identification and to elicit sexual affect, fantasy, and daydreaming. Romantic representations are rarely discussed from an academic viewpoint, however. Certain studies have examined the nature of romantic portrayals in movies, describing, for instance, how the principal theme of romantic movies has changed over time. Whereas characters in movies from the 1930s typically were torn between a marriage for money or a marriage out of love, in the 1950s and 1960s, the principal theme of romantic movies had become sexual attraction and an idealized vision of bachelorhood, termed "the playboy fantasy. Tanner and her colleagues found that romantic relationships in Disney films often are created by love at first sight and tend to be idealized as easy to maintain. Pardun explored the romantic content of movies that attracted a considerable proportion of the teenage audience in 1995, reaching somewhat different Movies, Romantic Love in-551 conclusions. In general, her analysis revealed that direct references to sexual content are rare in romantic scenes. The bifurcation between love and sex in teenage movies, already described by film analysts, appears to be confirmed empirically in this study.

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This "trickle-up influence" is particularly evident in families of low socioeconomic status gastritis xarelto generic 10mg metoclopramide fast delivery, where parents were typically not socialized to gastritis natural cures purchase 10mg metoclopramide visa politics in their own youth gastritis muscle pain effective metoclopramide 10 mg. Media literacy-the ability to analyze, evaluate, and produce media of various types-represents Media Education, Schools and-501 another promising strategy for cultivating civic growth. Communication scholar Robert Kubey notes that the United States trails other English-speaking nations in media education, and recent research shows that civic curricula are particularly effective when rooted in media literacy. Examples of this approach include students producing documentaries on community issues, broadcasting their own news programs, and using websites to compare candidate positions. In an era in which citizenship is increasingly expressed through electronic and digital forums, media literacy is likely to become a higher priority for civic education. How political should media education be, especially if it is conducted in public schools? Should negative effects of media on children and teens be emphasized, or should positive roles and media appreciation take center stage? While these and other debates continue, a basic definition of media literacy has been offered by Patricia Aufderheide. It states that media literacy is the ability to create, access, analyze, and evaluate the media in all its forms. Media education should help young people learn that media "construct reality," which basically means that media shape understandings and interpretations of the world. It should promote comprehension of the ways in which media portrayals are unrealistic (or are "constructions of reality"). Media education should advance knowledge of the potentially complex and varying ways that media affect audiences. It should help students to understand how media are made as well as why they are made (which introduces discussion of the commercial enterprise of making media). Finally, media education should foster awareness that media messages have inherent values associated with them. For instance, the relative absence of an ethnic group from prime-time television can serve to devalue the group, whereas the abundance of commercial messages in media can promote consumerism as a positive value. Media literacy and the teaching of civics and social studies at the dawn of the 21st century. From top-down to trickle-up influence: Revisiting assumptions about the family in political socialization, Political Communication, 19(3), 281­301. Proponents of media education in the classroom argue that in the modern world, the subject of the media deserves a place alongside more traditional topics such as social studies, science, and math. The term media education is often used synonymously with media literacy, describing endeavors that entail learning to "read" the media in an informed manner and with a healthy dose of skepticism. The curricula vary widely in terms of age group targeted, the topic that they take on, and the exercises and assignments that they entail. Yet, they share a common objective: to increase critical thinking about media, often with the desire to intervene in media effects. In one study conducted by Renee Hobbs and Richard Frost, 11th graders participated in a lengthy curriculum with an emphasis on the critical analysis of advertisements (among other topics). Later, participants were more likely than control-group members to be able to identify the purpose of an ad, its target audience, and the techniques used to create it. In studies by Erica Weintraub Austin and colleagues, media literacy training among third graders led to enhanced understanding of tobacco advertising techniques, diminished perception that most young people use tobacco, and increased endorsement of anti-tobacco advocacy. Violence A handful of media education studies on media violence have been published. Lawrence and Sharon Rosenkoetter and colleagues gave first through third graders a lengthy curriculum on the topic, which included such exercises as learning about special effects and discussing lack of realism. Rowell Huesmann and colleagues had slightly older children complete a shorter curriculum that included writing an essay about why television violence can be harmful. The research evidence from these and other studies shows increases in knowledge about and critical attitudes toward media violence among media education participants, as well as decreases in identification with aggressive characters or aggression. In focus groups, media literacy participants were more likely to give careful thought to media portrayals of beauty and bodies compared to those in a control group. A 10-lesson media literacy and eating disorder prevention program with 9-to-11-year-olds, studied by Michael Levine and associates, included units on the analysis of nutrition and weight messages in commercials.

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Thus gastritis diet popcorn generic 10mg metoclopramide amex, of key importance is designing and implementing more time-efficient systems for mobilizing and analyzing salient information antral gastritis diet plan discount metoclopramide 10mg online. Public research entities can support the process by making existing tools and data more usable within the valuation profession gastritis y dolor de espalda cheap 10 mg metoclopramide with mastercard. Large organizations and agencies should have a united approach that includes all stakeholder perspectives. This requires improved communication and education within and between these communities. Endnotes 1 2 3 4 5 Here ``green' refers to the entire panoply of green building strategies, including sustainable materials, improved indoor environmental quality, site-sensitive citing, water efficiency, and energy efficiency. The building sector and appraisers alike have long struggled with ambiguity in these definitions. Green Residential Appraisals 141 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 See. Appraisers typically require four to six sales comparison, or one highly identical paired sale. The Link Between Hazard Mitigation and Livability: Planning for a Sustainable Future. Survey of Buyers, Sellers and Realtors Involved in San Diego Third-party Owned Solar Home Transactions-A Qualitative Assessment. Sustainability and Income-Producing Property Valuation: North American Status and Recommended Practice. Unlocking the Value of an Energy-Efficient Home: A Blueprint to Make Energy Efficiency Improvements Visible in the Real Estate Market. Valuation of Green and High-Performance Property: Commercial, Multifamily and Institutional Properties. Certified Home Performance: Assessing the Market Impacts of Third Party Certification on Residential Properties. Climate Change, Buildings, and the Insurance Sector: Technological Synergisms between Adaptation and Mitigation. A New Appraisal: Lessons from the History of Efforts to Value Green and HighPerformance Home Attributes in the United States. Greater Energy Savings through Building Energy Performance Policy: Four Leading Policy and Program Options. This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, of the U. The Resilience of the Premium for Homes in New Urbanist Neighborhoods Author Abstract Edmund Zolnik In this study, I analyze longitudinal differences in single-family home prices in two new urbanist neighborhoods versus surrounding conventional neighborhoods. Using data on 78,513 single-family home sales transactions in Montgomery County, Maryland, I adopt a novel multilevel methodology to assess the effects of neighborhood demographic, economic, and locational characteristics as well as the effects of year on home prices. Results support empirical evidence on the premium that buyers willingly pay for homes in new urbanist neighborhoods. In this regard, the literature is limited in two fundamental ways: in temporal scale and in spatial scale. Taken together, these limitations make it difficult to ascertain the resiliency of these premiums. The spatial limitation relates to the fact that the number of comparable neighborhoods used to estimate premiums is very small. And, from a statistical perspective, a sample size of nine at the neighborhood level of analysis makes it a challenge to precisely estimate such differences. In this study, I attempt to address these temporal and spatial limitations in order to answer the following research questions. The long term in the study is ten years, which is enough to account for randomness and just slightly longer than the longest time horizon in the literature of nine years. The fact that the analysis covers a ten-year time period is important, but it is also important to acknowledge the importance of what occurred during those ten years.

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Each phase of research presented a model that dominated thinking and research to gastritis diet patient education generic metoclopramide 10 mg mastercard explain how media effects occurred gastritis diet 6 meals metoclopramide 10 mg on line. The first phase relied heavily on sociological and psychological paradigms of the early 20th century through the late 1930s gastritis and colitis discount metoclopramide 10mg with visa. Early research on media effects was based on sociological views of the mass society that saw the audience as normless and socially isolated and on psychological research that focused on stimulus-response. According to the "magic bullet" or "hypodermic needle" models of media effects, mass media messages were seen as powerful stimuli that could directly and quickly evoke predictable responses from passive and socially isolated audience members. This model, characterized as a direct effects model of media effects, viewed the audience as helpless to resist the well-crafted messages of powerful sources. Although news reports characterized the audience response to the radio broadcast of the War of the Worlds as widespread and profound, researchers Donohue, T. Improving coping skills of emotionally disturbed boys through television based social problem solving. The immediate impact of aggressive cartoons on emotionally disturbed and learning disabled children. A second reason for the study of media effects is the realization 514-Media Effects, Models of found that only a portion of the audience was really frightened by the fictional tale of invaders from outer space. Studies showed that a variety of audience characteristics either magnified or diminished the likelihood of fear. Other notable research programs provided other evidence that media effects were not as direct as originally thought. The Erie County (Ohio) voting study found that in a presidential election, personal contact could be more influential than media messages. Instead of studying the effects of powerful sources, this model focused on the power of the audience. Important concepts in this model are selective exposure, selective attention, and selective recall. In general, people were seen as selecting media messages according to their own interests and attitudes. If they encountered messages contrary to their preexisting attitudes, selective perception and recall would limit the impact of those messages. According to the limited-effects model, reinforcement was the most common outcome of media effects. In 1960, Joseph Klapper summarized the limited-effects model as asserting that mass communication affects media consumers through interconnected mediating factors and influences rather than serving as a necessary and sufficient direct cause of specific effects. With the arrival of television, it quickly became clear that the rapid adoption of this new medium overcame the power of selective exposure. Early studies, for example, showed that television viewers learned about political candidates from campaign ads, even if they were not particularly interested in the election. New theories of media effects emerged based on the impact of consistent messages carried across media channels. Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw, for example, found a strong agenda-setting media effect in the 1968 presidential election: Because the news media, for the most part, highlight the same issues, events, and people, the audience believes that these issues, events, and people are important. The agenda-setting model, for example, holds that the media do not tell people what to think but rather what to think about. Cultivation theory holds not that television makes people act violently, but that it makes them think that society is violent. This historical view of media effects serves an organizing function for mass communication research. For example, the uncertainty of a society between two world wars might have given the media more power. The limited-effects phase, for example, was useful to the broadcast industry, which was resisting substantial government regulation at the time. This historical view illustrates that different models of media effects place different emphasis on either the media or audience as the prime explanation for media effects. The study of media effects is now driven by a range of theories or specific explanations that assert direct connections between various aspects of media content and specific outcomes of media use.

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